Knowledge Base

Backbone Cabling >>

Call Accounting >>

Call Center Management >>

Call Record on Demand >>

Category 3 Voice Cabling >>

Category 5E (Cat 5E) >>

Category 6 (Cat 6) >>

Data Center Build-Outs >>

Demarcation Point (DMARC, Demarc, MPOE) >>

DID (Direct Inward Dial) >>

DS1 (Digital Signal 1) (T1) >>

DS3 (Digital Signal 3) (T3) >>

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) >>

Ethernet Access>>

Fail-Safe Communication Designs >>

Faxing to and from your Desktop >>

Fiber Optic Cabling >>

Find-Me, Follow-Me (Forwarding) >>

Hot Desking >>

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) >>

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) >>

Managed Router Services >>

Meet-Me Conferencing Solutions >>

Mobile Twinning >>

Moves, Additions and Changes >>

MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) >>

Paging and Paging Systems >>

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) >>

PRI (Prime Rate ISDN) >>

Private Branch Exchange (PBX) >>

Private Line (Point-to-Point) Circuits >>

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) >>

Rate Center >>

RG-6 Cabling >>

Queuing >>

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) >>

SIP Trunking >>

Small Community Networking >>

Speaker Cabling >>

Structured Cabling >>

TDM (Time-Division Multiplexing) >>

TIA/EIA-568-B Structured Cabling Standards >>

Unified Messaging >>

Voice over IP (VoIP) >>

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) >>

VPN (Virtual Private Networking) >>

Web Conferencing >>

Wireless Phone Solutions >>


Backbone Cabling

Backbone Cabling is the inter-building and intra-building cable connections in structured cabling between entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications closets. Backbone cabling consists of the transmission media, main and intermediate cross-connects and terminations at these locations. This system is mostly used in Data centers.

Back to the Top >>

Call Accounting

XCLUTEL provides software that allows system administrators the ability to monitor incoming and outgoing call sources and time-of-day volumes. This tool enables business owner and administrators to have insight in to where and when employees are making calls, as well as, detailed information on who is calling their business.

Back to the Top >>

Call Center Management

XCLUTEL's call center solutions will allow you to manage the call volumes of your call center. Giving you the tools you need to make split-second decisions relating to the service of your customers. This feature gives you detailed reporting, PC Wallboards and advanced queuing options allowing you to get the most out of your staff while catering to your customers needs.

Back to the Top >>

Call Record on Demand

Where IP Office has Voicemail Pro installed it is possible to record a call and save the recording to the user’s mailbox, a group mailbox or the voice recording library. For example, this is useful when a caller is going to give detailed information like an address or phone number and the caller will hear a warning message or tone that the call is being recorded in some countries. Where call recording is required for Quality Assurance, it is possible to set the IP Office system to automatically record a percentage of calls for later review. Beginning with IP Office R4.0, any call (normal, conference, or intrusion) and any phone type (including IP) can be
recorded. Where “advice of recording” needs to be played, IP Office will ignore Voicemail port licensing if an insufficient number of voicemail channels have been licensed. Note: for IP phones, a VCM channel will be required for the duration of the recording.

Back to the Top >>

Category 3 Voice Cabling

Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3, is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable designed to reliably carry data up to 10 Mbit/s, with a possible bandwidth of 16 MHz. It is part of a family of copper cabling standards defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association. Category 3 was a popular cabling format among computer network administrators in the early 1990s, but fell out of popularity in favor of the very similar, but higher performing, Cat 5 standard. Now that Cat 5 is obsolete, most new structured cable installations are built with Cat 5e or Cat 6 cable. Cat 3 is currently still in use in two-line telephone systems, although Cat 5 or higher could do the same work and allow transition to VOIP.

Back to the Top >>

Category 5E

Cat 5e cable is an enhanced version of Cat 5 that adds specifications for far end crosstalk. It was formally defined in 2001 in the TIA/EIA-568-B standard, which no longer recognizes the original Cat 5 specification. Although 1000BASE-T was designed for use with Cat 5 cable, the tighter specifications associated with Cat 5e cable and connectors make it an excellent choice for use with 1000BASE-T. Despite the stricter performance specifications, Cat 5e cable does not enable longer cable distances for Ethernet networks: cables are still limited to a maximum of 100 m (328 ft.) in length (normal practice is to limit fixed ("horizontal") cables to 90 m to allow for up to 5 m of patch cable at each end). Cat 5e cable performance characteristics and test methods are defined in TIA/EIA-568-B.2-2001.

Back to the Top >>

Category 6 (Cat 6)

Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 6, is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network protocols that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Cat-6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). It is expected to suit the 10GBASE-T (10Gigabit Ethernet) standard, although with limitations on length if unshielded Cat 6 cable is used.


The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like earlier copper cable standards. Although Cat-6 is sometimes made with 23 gauge wire, this is not a requirement; the ANSI/TIA-568-B.2-1 specification states the cable may be made with 22 to 24 AWG gauge wire, so long as the cable meets the specified testing standards. When used as a patch cable, Cat-6 is normally terminated in 8P8C modular connectors, often incorrectly referred to as "RJ-45" electrical connectors. Cat-6 connectors are made to higher standards that help reduce noise caused by crosstalk and system noise. Attenuation, NEXT (Near End Crosstalk), and PSNEXT (Power Sum NEXT) are all significantly lower when compared to Cat-5/5e.


Some Cat-6 cables are too large and may be difficult to attach to 8P8C connectors without a special modular piece and are technically not standard compliant. If components of the various cable standards are intermixed, the performance of the signal path will be limited to that of the lowest category. As with all cables defined by ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B, the maximum allowed length of a Cat-6 horizontal cable is 100 meters (330 ft.) in length, depending upon the ratio of cord length:horizontal cable length.

he cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. It doesn't make any difference which is used, as they are both straight through (pin 1 to 1, pin 2 to 2, etc). Mixing T568A-terminated patch cords with T568B-terminated horizontal cables (or the reverse) does not produce pinout problems in a facility. Although it may very slightly degrade signal quality, this effect is marginal and certainly no greater than that produced by mixing cable brands in-channel. The T568B Scheme is by far the most widely used method of terminating patch cables.

Back to the Top >>

Data Center / Computer Room Build-Outs

A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression) and security devices.

Back to the Top >>

Demarcation Point (DMARC, Demarc, MPOE)

In telephony, the demarcation point is the point at which the telephone company network ends and connects with the wiring at the customer premises. A demarcation point is also referred to as the demarc, DMARC, MPOE, or minimum point of entry.

Back to the Top >>

DID (Direct Inward Dial) Lines

This distributed direct number can be used by your system's call routing software to route the call to an individual phone, or groups of phones. This service is typically used to reduce the workload on a reception position by giving members of staff or departments individual numbers so they can be called directly. For convenience it is common to have the extension or group number the same as the digits supplied from the network. In North America, T1 circuits are required for DID.

Back to the Top >>

DS1 (Digital Signal 1) (aka T1)

A Special Access Service that provides virtually error-free voice, video and data transmission at speeds up to 1.544 Mbps.

Back to the Top >>

DS3 (Digital Signal 3) (aka T3)

A Special Access Service comparable to having 672 voice-grade channels capable of handling multiple data streams in high volume at speeds up to 44.736 Mbps (commonly referred to as a 45 Megabit channel).

Back to the Top >>

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

A generic name for a group of enhanced speed digital services provided by telephone service providers. DSL services run on twisted-pair wires; they carry both voice and data.

Back to the Top >>

Ethernet Access

Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10BASE-T and provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. Devices are connected to the cable and compete for access using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol. Fast Ethernet or 100BASE-T provides transmission speeds up to 100 megabits per second and is typically used for LAN backbone systems, supporting workstations with 10BASE-T cards. Gigabit Ethernet provides an even higher level of backbone support at 1000 megabits per second (1 gigabit or 1 billion bits per second). 10-Gigabit Ethernet provides up to 10 billion bits per second. Ethernet was named by Robert Metcalfe, one of its developers, for the passive substance called "luminiferous (light-transmitting) ether" that was once thought to pervade the universe, carrying light throughout. Ethernet was so- named to describe the way that cabling, also a passive medium, could similarly carry data everywhere throughout the network.

Back to the Top >>

Fail-Safe Communication Designs

As a standard practice XCLUTEL designs secondary paths for both Voice and Data communications to ensure that you have 99.999% availability to your communications system 24x7x365. XCLUTEL designs their solutions this way to counter the negative effects of a circuit outage. By deploying our Fail-Safe solution, your chances of completely being out-of-service is reduced considerably. Additionally, XCLUTEL responds to all major failure situations in less than 15-mins. So when you need a prompt effective response XCLUTEL is there to deliver.

Back to the Top >>

Faxing to and from Your Desktop

This feature alone will save you some much needed time in your busy day. Give your people dedicated fax lines so they can receive faxes at their desktop without having to wait their turn at the fax machine. This feature has been proven to increase office productivity by more that 15%. Using this feature will distribute all faxes sent to a designated number to the respective number owner's email account viewable using any PDF viewing software. Likewise, any word doc, pdf, excel file, etc. can be faxed directly from a PC without wasting your printer's toner or paper supplies.

Back to the Top >>

Fiber Optic Cabling

An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are immune to electromagnetic interference. Optical fibers are also used to form sensors, and in a variety of other applications. Light is kept in the "core" of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multimode fibers (MMF). Fibers which support only a single mode are called singlemode fibers (SMF). Multimode fibers generally have a large-diameter core, and are used for short-distance communication links or for applications where high power must be transmitted. Singlemode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 200 meters.

Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc. Special connectors are used to make removable connections.

Back to the Top >>

Find-me, Follow-me (Forwarding)

This is the ability to forward a user's calls to another extension or external number such as a Mobile/Cell Phone. Calls can be forwarded in a number of ways and if the call is not answered at the forward destination it will go to IP Office voicemail if enabled for the user and call supervision is available. There are three separate forward destinations, one for forwarding on busy one for no answer and one for forward unconditional. Once the numbers have been entered, the user can toggle the forwarding to be active or not as required without having to re-enter the numbers. If the user is a member of a hunt group, some types of Hunt Group calls can also follow forward unconditional. Users can select if forwarding is applied to external calls only, or all calls. Call forwarding is processed after Do Not Disturb and Follow-Me conditions are tested.

Back to the Top >>

Hot Desking

Hot Desking allows a number of users non-exclusive use the same extension. Each user logs in with their own identity so they can receive calls and can access their own Voicemail and other facilities. For example, sales personnel who visit the office infrequently can be provided with telephony and Voicemail services without being
permanently assigned a physical extension. When finished, they simply log off to make the extension available to others or if users log on at another phone, they are automatically logged off the original extension.

Back to the Top >>

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

The application protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. The protocol requires an HTTP client program on one end of a connection and an HTTP server program on the other.

Back to the Top >>

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

A widely available high bandwidth switched network service providing end-to-end digital connectivity over standard phone lines for simultaneous transmission of voice and data. There are two levels of service:

1.  Basic Rate Interface-ISDN (BRI-ISDN)--provides for digital transmission of two 64 kbps bearer channels and one 16 kbps data and signaling channel (2B+D).

2.  Primary Rate Interface-ISDN (PRI-ISDN)--provides for digital transmission of twenty three (23) 64 kbps bearer channels and one (1) 64 kbps data and signaling channel (23 B+D).

Back to the Top >>

Managed Router Services

XCLUTEL's managed router service saves you from spending the time and money on configuring your wide area network traffic and VPN services. In addition, XCLUTEL maintains their on-site routing equipment and covers replacement costs if the equipment fails.

Back to the Top >>

Meet-Me Conferencing Solution

The conferencing solution built-in to IP Office enables multiple callers to talk in an audio conference. Callers can be on-site personnel as well as external parties whether field-based engineers, sales staff on the road, customers or suppliers. Conference calls can be planned in advance or established ad-hoc as and when required.

IP Office Voicemail Pro complements the built-in meet-me conference bridge facility on IP Office systems by adding guidance prompts as well as requesting PIN codes as participants enter the conference for security. For example, if conference calls are regularly scheduled, Voicemail Pro can have pre-programmed Call Flows for weekly conference calls e.g.: every Tuesday between 2pm and 5pm using PIN code 1234 for a sales call, etc. If multiple conference calls are scheduled, users can select which one they want to attend via a simple menu. Should users encounter
any issues, calls can be automatically routed to the operator for assistance. For additional security, if Caller ID information is provided by the network Voicemail Pro can make Caller ID checks before allowing calls into a conference.

Back to the Top >>

Mobile Twinning

Twinning allows a primary extension and a secondary number (extension or external) to operate together as a single telephone, typically used in scenarios like workshops or warehouses where team supervisors may have a desk with a fixed phone but also have a Mobile/Cell phone. When a call is presented to the primary phone the secondary will ring. If the primary telephone does not ring, for example in Do Not Disturb, the secondary phone will not ring. When a call is made from either twinned phone, the call will appear to have come from the primary phone (when the secondary is an extension on the IP Office system). Other users of the system need not know that the supervisor has two different phones. The supervisor’s Coverage Timer and No Answer Time are started for the call and if the call is not answered within that time, the call will be delivered to available coverage buttons (if
applicable) and then Voicemail (if applicable). Users may be allowed to enter a twinned number, or may just be able to activate/deactivate the twinning function
depending on administrative settings.

Back to the Top >>

Moves, Adds and Changes (MAC)

Moves, Additions and Changes (MAC) is a designation used to describe any work outside of the original agreed upon scope of work usually defined in the proposal or quote. MAC work is usually billable at time & material rates and is billed at the end of the project.

Back to the Top >>

MPLS (multi-Protocol Label Switching

is a data-carrying mechanism that belongs to the family of packet-switched networks. MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) and Layer 3 (Network Layer), and thus is often referred to as a "Layer 2.5" protocol. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients which provide a datagram service model. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic, including IP packets, as well as native ATM, SONET, and Ethernet frames.


A number of different technologies were previously deployed with essentially identical goals, such as frame relay and ATM. MPLS is now replacing these technologies in the marketplace, mostly because it is better aligned with current and future technology needs.


In particular, MPLS dispenses with the cell-switching and signaling-protocol baggage of ATM. MPLS recognizes that small ATM cells are not needed in the core of modern networks, since modern optical networks (as of 2001) are so fast (at 10 Gbit/s and well beyond) that even full-length 1500 byte packets do not incur significant real-time queuing delays (the need to reduce such delays — e.g., to support voice traffic — was the motivation for the cell nature of ATM).


At the same time, MPLS attempts to preserve the traffic engineering and out-of-band control that made frame relay and ATM attractive for deploying large-scale networks.


MPLS was originally proposed by a group of engineers from Ipsilon Networks, but their "IP Switching" technology, which was defined only to work over ATM, did not achieve market dominance. Cisco Systems, Inc. introduced a related proposal, not restricted to ATM transmission, called "Tag Switching" when it was a Cisco proprietary proposal, and was renamed "Label Switching" when it was handed over to the IETF for open standardization. The IETF work involved proposals from other vendors, and development of a consensus protocol that combined features from several vendors' work.


One original motivation was to allow the creation of simple high-speed switches, since for a significant length of time it was impossible to forward IP packets entirely in hardware. However, advances in VLSI have made such devices possible. Therefore the advantages of MPLS primarily revolve around the ability to support multiple service models and perform traffic management. MPLS also offers a robust recovery framework[1] that goes beyond the simple protection rings of synchronous optical networking (SONET/SDH).


While the traffic management benefits of migrating to MPLS are quite valuable (better reliability, increased performance), there is a significant loss of visibility and access into the MPLS cloud for IT departments.


Back to the Top >>


All XCLUTEL's digital and IP phones have loudspeakers can be used to receive
broadcast audio messages without having to install a separate paging system. Paging can be to individual phones or groups of phones.


Analog extension ports can be configured for connection to external overhead paging systems, usually through an adapter, such that a port can be included in a paging group to permit mixed phone and overhead paging.

Some Avaya digital and IP phones are able to answer a page by pressing a key while the page is going on, this terminates the page and turns it into a normal call.
This feature is supported across the IP Office Small Community Network

Back to the Top >>

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)

The basic single line switched access service offered by local exchange carriers to residential and business end users, using loop-start signaling.

Back to the Top >>

PRI (Prime Rate ISDN)

PRI is a 4-wire 1.544 megabits per second (DS1) local switching system port that uses the B8ZS line code and the ESF framing format. PRI is available in a twenty-three B channel plus one D channel (23B + D) configuration or a twenty-four B channel (24B) configuration. This service is very popular for mid-sized to enterprise customers because it allows 23 simultaneous voice calls over its 4-wire construction.

Back to the Top >>

Private Branch Exchange (PBX)

A private telephone switching system commonly located on the end user premises with an attendant console. The PBX is connected to a common group of lines from one or more central offices to provide service to a number of individual phones

Back to the Top >>

Private Line (Point-to-Point) Circuits

A communications service between specific locations that involves dedicated circuits, private switching arrangements, and/or predefined transmission paths, whether virtual or physical.

Back to the Top >>

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)

1.The worldwide voice telephone network.

2. Any common carrier network that provides circuit switching among public users.

Back to the Top >>

Rate Center

The specific geographic point and corresponding geographic area that are associated with one or more particular NPA/NXX codes that have been assigned to a local exchange carrier for its provision of exchange services. The geographic point is identified by a specific coordinate that is used to calculate distance-sensitive end user traffic to/from the particular NPA/NXX associated with the

Back to the Top >>

RG-6 Cabling

RG-6/U is a common type of coaxial cable used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications. The term "RG-6" itself is quite generic and refers to a wide variety of cable designs, which differ from one another in shielding characteristics, center conductor composition, and dielectric type. RG-6 was originally a military spec where RG means Radio Guide, but is now obsolete; in practice, the term "RG-6" is generally used to refer to coaxial cables with an 18 AWG center conductor and 75 ohm characteristic impedance.

he most commonly-recognized variety of RG-6 is Cable television (CATV) distribution coax, used to route cable television signals to and within homes, and RG-6 type cables have become the standard for CATV, mostly replacing the smaller RG-59, in recent years. CATV distribution coax typically has a copper-coated steel center conductor and a combination aluminum foil/aluminum braid shield, typically with low coverage (about 60%). RG-6 type cables are also used in professional video applications, carrying either baseband analog video signals or serial digital interface (SDI) signals; in these applications, the center conductor is ordinarily solid copper, the shielding is much heavier (typically aluminum foil/95% copper braid), and tolerances are more tightly controlled, to improve impedance stability.

G-6 cables typically are fitted with various types of connector at each end; in CATV distribution applications, these are typically F connector style; in professional baseband video, BNC connectors; and in consumer a/v applications other than RF and CATV, RCA plugs.

Back to the Top >>


Queuing allows calls to a Hunt Group to be held in a queue when all extensions in the group extension List are busy. When an extension becomes free the queued call is then presented. The definition of queued calls now includes ringing calls and calls waiting to be presented for ringing. The queue limit can be set to control the
maximum number of calls to wait against a hunt group. While queuing, if Voicemail is operational, the caller will be played the announcements for this Hunt Group.

Back to the Top >>

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

is a signaling protocol, widely used for setting up and tearing down multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over the Internet. Other feasible application examples include video conferencing, streaming multimedia distribution, instant messaging, presence information and online games. In November 2000, SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IMS architecture for IP based streaming multimedia services in cellular systems.

The protocol can be used for creating, modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions consisting of one or several media streams. The modification can involve changing addresses or ports, inviting more participants, adding or deleting media streams, etc.

The SIP protocol is situated at the session layer in the OSI model, and at the application layer in the TCP/IP model. SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer; it can run on TCP, UDP, or SCTP. It was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne (Columbia University) and Mark Handley (UCL) starting in 1996. The latest version of the specification is RFC 3261 [1] from the IETF SIP Working Group.[2]

SIP has the following characteristics:

  • Transport-independent, because SIP can be used with UDP, TCP, SCTP, etc.
  • Text-based, allowing for humans to read and analyze SIP messages.

Back to the Top >>

SIP Trunking

SIP Trunking is the de facto standard for VoIP applications. A SIP Trunk is primarily a concurrent call that is routed over the IP backbone of a carrier using VoIP technology. SIP Trunks are used in conjunction with an IP-PBX and are thought of as replacements for traditional PRI or analog circuits. The popularity of SIP Trunks is due primarily to the cost savings of SIP along with the increased reliability as backed by the SLA's of SIP Trunk Providers.


SIP Trunking is simply a single conduit pipeline for multimedia elements (voice, video and data). SIP Trunking reduces or eliminates the need for PSTN media gateways as well as reduce or eliminate the need for narrow-band voice circuits. SIP Trunking provides a smart and cost effective solution to customers by eliminating the need to purchase additional equipment, such as managed media gateway devices to interface between IP voice to the PSTN.


SIP Trunking provides the following benefits:

  • Works with any SIP Supported device
  • Additional cost savings may be realized through converged access
  • Eliminate the need to purchase and manage traditional TDM-based voice circuits with limited scalability

Back to the Top >>

Small Community Networking

The feature that allows you to use VoIP VPN lines to link extension dialing between IP Office systems. With Small Community Networking enabled, the separate IP Office systems 'learn' each others extension numbers. This allow extension calls between systems and support for a range of internal call features. In IP Office Software Level 1.3, Small Community Networking supports a maximum of 500 extensions across 16 IP Office systems.

Back to the Top >>

Speaker Cabling

Speaker wire is used to make the electrical connection between loudspeakers and audio amplifiers. Modern speaker wire consists of two electrical conductors individually insulated by plastic. The two wires are electrically identical, but are marked (e.g. by a ridge on the insulation of one wire, the color of one wire, a thread in one wire, etc) to help easily identify the correct polarity. Some historic designs also featured another pair of wires for electrical power for an electromagnet in the loudspeaker. At least one such speaker design is still in production (in France), but essentially all speakers manufactured now use permanent magnets, which displaced field electromagnet speakers over half a century ago. The effect of speaker wire upon the signal it carries has been a much-debated topic in the audiophile and high fidelity worlds. The accuracy of many advertising claims on these points has also been a matter of much debate.

Back to the Top >>

Structured Cabling

is building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. Structured cabling falls into six subsystems: Entrance Facilities are where the building interfaces with the outside world. Equipment Rooms host equipment which serve the users inside the building. Telecommunications Rooms house telecommunication equipment which connect the backbone and the horizontal cabling subsystems. Backbone Cabling connect between the entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications rooms. Horizontal Cabling connect telecommunications rooms to individual outlets on the floor. Work-Area Components connect end-user equipment to outlets of the horizontal cabling system. Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers, offices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications, using category 5 (CAT 5E) or category 6 cable (CAT 6E) and modular sockets. These standards define how to lay the cabling in a star formation, such that all outlets terminate at a central patch panel (which is normally 19 inch rack-mounted), from where it can be determined exactly how these connections will be used. Each outlet can be 'patched' into a data network switch (normally also rack mounted alongside), or patched into a 'telecoms patch panel' which forms a bridge into a private branch exchange (PBX) telephone system, thus making the connection a voice port.

Back to the Top >>

TDM (Time-Division Multiplexing)

is a type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent time slots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during time slot 1, sub-channel 2 during time slot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one time slot per sub-channel. After the last sub-channel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc.

Back to the Top >>

TIA/EIA-568-B Structured Cabling Standards

TIA/EIA-568-B is a set of three telecommunications standards from the Telecommunications Industry Association, a 1988 offshoot of the EIA. The standards address commercial building cabling for telecom products and services. The three standards are formally titled ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001, -B.2-2001, and -B.3-2001.

he TIA/EIA-568-B standards were first published in 2001. They supersede the TIA/EIA-568-A standards set, which are now obsolete.

Perhaps the best known features of TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 are the pin/pair assignments for eight-conductor 100-ohm balanced twisted pair cabling. These assignments are named T568A and T568B, and are frequently referred to (erroneously) as TIA/EIA-568A and TIA/EIA-568B.

Back to the Top >>

Unified Messaging

is the integration of different streams of communication (e-mail, SMS, Fax, voice, video, etc.) into a single, or, unified 'message store', accessible from a variety of different devices. Unified messaging is a subset of a fully integrated Unified communications system.

Unified Messaging was expected by many in the consumer telecommunications industry to be a popular product, first augmenting and eventually replacing voicemail. However, UM was slow to gain consumer acceptance, and UM vendors such as Comverse were badly hit when the slowdown in the telecommunications industry in 2001 made carriers wary of spending large amounts of money on technology with little proven consumer demand.

Today, UM solutions are increasingly accepted in the corporate environment. The aim of deploying UM solutions generally is to enhance and improve business processes as well as services. UM solutions targeting professional end-user customers integrate communications processes into the existing IT infrastructure, i. e. into CRM, ERP and mail systems (e. g. Phoenixnet PH, Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Notes, SAP, etc.)

Back to the Top >>

Voice Over IP (VoIP)

is a protocol optimized for the transmission of voice through the Internet or other packet-switched networks. VoIP is often used abstractly to refer to the actual transmission of voice (rather than the protocol implementing it). This latter concept is also referred to as IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband, broadband telephony, and broadband phone. The last two are arguably incorrect because telephone-quality voice communications are, by definition, narrowband.

Back to the Top >>

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is a way to provide Ethernet based multipoint to multipoint communication over IP/MPLS networks. It allows geographically dispersed sites to share an Ethernet broadcast domain by connecting sites through pseudo-wires. The technologies that can be used as pseudo-wire can be Ethernet over MPLS, L2TPv3 or even GRE. There are two IETF standards track RFCs (RFC 4761 and RFC 4762) describing VPLS establishment.

Back to the Top >>

VPN (Virtual Private Networking)

is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The link-layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features.


A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. The distinguishing characteristics of VPNs are not security or performance, but that they overlay other network(s) to provide a certain functionality that is meaningful to a user community.

Back to the Top >>

Web Conferencing

Perform sales presentations from the comfort of your own headquarters to anyone, anywhere in the world. Our system engineers can design and implement a web-based conferencing system that will allow you to perform WebX meetings and other travel saving presentation activities that will directly effect the bottom line in our current high fuel cost environment we live in.

Back to the Top >>

Wireless Phone Solutions

Avaya IP DECT solutions for Communication Manager and IP Office deliver secure, high-quality wireless voice communications to mobile employees within a building or across a campus. Consisting of lightweight wireless handsets (portable parts) and associated radio base stations (radio fixed parts), Avaya IP DECT solutions use tried and true standards-based technology that scales to support a large number of users. Avaya IP DECT solutions are particularly useful for those needing high-quality wireless voice communications while keeping voice and data on separate enterprise wireless networks.

Back to the Top >>

Follow Us on Social Media:

Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube

Multi-Site Solutions

With valet customer service XCLUTEL finds unique solutions to Your Phone Service, Phone Systems, and VoIP integration challenges.

read more about Xclutel

Business Continuity Plans

XCLUTEL has taken disaster recovery to a new level. With your XCLUTEL Maintenance Contract or your Network Access Products you can add Failsafe on a whole new level.

read more about Xclutel

Cisco Select Partner

The Partner Network

XCLUTEL takes pride in the relationships they have earned in order to deliver an exceptional blend of products and services to their customers.

read more about Xclutel's Partner Network